Nerves can be injured in more ways than you might think. From kitchen accidents, car wrecks, sports injuries to injury during surgery, there are several situations that can lead to damaged or injured nerves. But there are four common types of nerve injury that can sometimes lead to chronic pain:
- Cut or laceration
four common causes of nerve damage
When it comes to nerve damage, what causes nerve pain? And why? Let’s break down what each of these causes of nerve damage are, what they mean and how they commonly occur.
cut or laceration
The most common cause of nerve damage involves cuts or lacerations to the nerve. These injuries can occur due to a traumatic event or even during a surgery.
Individuals can sustain this type of injury if they have experienced a severe cut. For example, slicing into your hand while cutting an avocado or bagel or falling through glass. Nerves can accidentally be cut during surgery or may even need to be cut in a procedure like a mastectomy or tumor removal, where cutting the nerve may have been unavoidable. Nerves can also be cut by a broken bone.
Much like a rubber band, nerves have a tipping point when stretched too far. When that point is reached or exceeded, injury to the nerve can occur. Stretching can cause damage to the internal structure of the nerve, and the nerve may no longer function properly.
Nerves can be stretched too far during retraction of tissues during surgery, or, for example, during the placement or removal of orthopedic implants. In fact, 10%–40% of patients experience chronic neuropathic pain after surgery.
Nerves can also be stretched during an injury when sudden, sometimes violent, movement jostles the body in a direction it wasn’t made to move. When this fast, unnatural movement occurs, the stretched nerve fibers can be stressed to the point of injury.
A movement like this can occur in sports injuries, car accidents or even during childbirth. Depending on the extent of the injury, a stretched nerve injury may be temporary or permanent. If the damage to the nerve fibers is severe enough and the nerve is not fixed, the growing nerve fibers may form a painful neuroma which can be the cause of chronic pain.
We all know what it’s like to be under a lot of pressure. When that pressure gets to be too much, we burn out, snap or give in. When nerves experience exceeding amounts of pressure, they also begin to perform at less than their best.
Nerve compression occurs when nerves are squeezed, pinched or otherwise pressured by surrounding tissues. This extra strain disrupts normal nerve function, which can lead to muscle weakness, numbness, burning or tingling, or immense pain.
Compression injuries often occur near joints like elbows, wrists and ankles—any place where surrounding bones, ligaments, tendons and muscles have an opportunity to add undue stress to the nerve. They can also be the result of a previous surgical or traumatic injury where scar tissue has developed and is compressing the nerve. When a nerve is compressed, it can become inflamed, which can lead to nerve pain.
A neuroma is a tangled mass of nerve and scar tissue that may form when nerve damage, either from an injury or during a surgical procedure, goes unrecognized or isn’t properly repaired. Unrecognized nerve injuries are a common problem as often times nerve injuries are missed in the ER. When nerve fibers continue to grow without any structure to guide them, normal nerve function is disrupted and can lead to chronic pain.
Symptoms may include pain, loss of function, extreme sensitivity to touch or temperature, or in some cases numbness.
nerve damage and nerve pain
Any one of these common causes of nerve damage can lead to chronic nerve pain. When nerve damage causes nerve pain, it’s important to understand your options for repairing the source of the pain rather than typical treatments which may only temporarily manage the symptom.
Nerve repair is possible. Depending on your nerve injury, there are a number of surgical options available.